Humanity finally began to understand that natural reserves of coal, gas, etc. are not limitless and sooner or later we will run out of them. Then the world will either face a huge technological catastrophe, or switch to the second-generation fuel that has already been developed. The torrefaction of biomass will help solve this problem. With the help of torrefaction, so-called biochar is obtained. It is produced in the form of pellets, granules or briquettes.
The torrefaction of biomass itself implies heating the raw material to a temperature of 200-300 degrees with limited air access and normal atmospheric pressure.
Various wastes from woodworking and agricultural enterprises are used as raw materials for torrefaction. This can be wood chips, husks from cereals, bark, branches and other wood waste.
In the course of such a process, scientifically called pyrolysis, the components of wood are decomposed: cellulose and lignin, excess moisture and other non-combustible substances are removed. As a result, the energy value of the resulting fuel becomes higher (by about 10 percent or more), since only combustible components remain in it, and, on the contrary, the mass decreases by an average of 25%.
Torrefied biomass (black pellets) can be used for heating residential and non-residential premises, for production, and actually wherever ordinary coal is used.
- energy value. For torreficate, it is significantly higher than that of the feedstock;
- consumer characteristics of torreficate are very close to the characteristics of coal;
- torrefied biomass is completely environmentally friendly and, which is very important, renewable in nature product;
- unpretentiousness to storage conditions. Black pellets have a moisture content of no more than 2% and practically does not absorb water, they can be stored even outdoors;
- torrefied biomass is not prone to spontaneous combustion;
- torreficate, when burned, emits a minimum of volatile substances into the air;
- biochar is easy to transport due to its low weight;
- old solid fuel boilers are also suitable for the use of torreficate, equipment modernization is not required, which significantly saves consumers’ resources.
- the quality of the torreficate is highly dependent on the quality and homogeneity of the biomass;
- torrefaction of biomass as a technology does not yet have clear standards and criteria for the formation of pricing policy
Torreficate production includes the following stages:
- reception of raw materials;
- screening of raw materials to remove foreign inclusions and too small parts;
- All mass used for torrefaction must be uniform in size;
- primary heating. At this stage, the biomass is pre-dried;
- torrefaction of biomass. The temperature at this stage can exceed 300 degrees, the access of oxygen to the chamber is limited. Torrefaction can take from 30 minutes to 1.5 hours, depending on the quantity, composition and size of raw materials, as well as on the temperature used;
- For ease of transportation, storage and use, torrefied biomass is made into granules, pellets or briquettes;
- sorting and packing.