Dry foam cheese. Cooking features
Ready-to-eat snacks with low carbohydrate and / or with low fat content and attractive organoleptic properties (aroma, structure, appearance, etc.) are in demand by many consumers. Dry cheese, which is a natural milk-based product that is an irreplaceable source of calcium, protein, and other nutrients, contain low in carbohydrates and is a prime example of this type of snack.
Manufacturers and consumers began to pay more and more attention to functional food products.
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Cheese is an important source of biologically valuable protein (28-30%), fat (40-60%), assimilable calcium (700-1000 mg per 100 g of product), phosphorus (400-600 mg). The biological value of cheese is due to the presence of fat-and water-soluble vitamins in it, as well as a large amount of enzymes secreted by beneficial microflora. The composition of the cheese testifies to the high nutritional and biological value of the cheese: casein performs a nutritional function, is digested as much as possible in the stomach with the release of glyco- and phosphopeptides, which regulate the secretion of gastric juice. In addition, casein proteins serve as a source of essential amino acids, mineral elements – calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and potassium, which play an important role in our body.
Dry foam cheese belongs to the category of light snacks or dry breakfasts. Breakfast cereals include products that are ready to eat without preliminary culinary processing, made from various food raw materials. The product is characterized by a spongy”airy” structure, favorable for digestion, as well as almost 100% digestibility and the absence of heat treatment by-products, which provides a complete dietary superiority over conventional fried chips and pastry.
With the specified parameters of microwave drying, the product retains all the beneficial properties of cheese, vitamins and minerals. The technology excludes the formation of carcinogens. The dry foam cheese is characterized by a reduced fat content. In addition to the original cheese, natural products are used as raw materials in the manufacture of dry foamed cheese: wheat flour, pectin, a mixture of dry vegetables and flavoring substances, spices. Due to the content in the claimed product of natural products: cheese, pectin, natural flavoring ingredients, the product has a high digestibility and valuable taste. Food flavors give the claimed product a full and harmonious taste and aroma, rich in shades inherent in natural vegetables and spices – dill, coriander, parsley, garlic, carrots and peppers, coriander, etc.
The improvement of the structural and mechanical properties of the product is associated with its composition. As a result of the experiment, good results were obtained using hard rennet cheeses with a fat content of up to 40-45% as a raw material. The moisture content of no more than 3% increases the organoleptic properties of the obtained product and increases its shelf life up to 180 days.
The product is ready-to-use, has high consumer and organoleptic properties and can be recommended for use by a wide range of consumers, including children.
Due, in particular, the selection ratio between the components included in the composition and sequence of manufacturing a dry foam obtained cheese with high quality and bioavailability. As you know, the influence of organoleptic properties on the nutritional value of products is very great. It is due to the effect on the human sense organs, excitement or suppression of the secretory-motor activity of the digestive apparatus, depends on the appearance, texture, smell, taste, composition, degree of freshness, etc.
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The disadvantage of the known product is that it is obtained by pre-cooling (freezing) before molding and drying. This stage requires energy consumption, which increases the cost of the product. In addition, freezing the cheese affects its taste as well, because when frozen, the protein structure is destroyed. When cooled from minus 10-12 ° C, components with hydrophobic bonds are affected – caseins, which are weaken, break down into smaller formations. Cheese obtained at a such low temperature is less durable, with lower biological value, while the texture of the cheese becomes crumbly, the taste is empty, unexpressed. There is evidence that these proteins can cause allergies.
In addition, this product does not provided for the introduction of flavoring additives, spices, etc., which does not allow diversifying the taste and other organoleptic properties of the product. The high content of aromatic substances promotes the separation of digestive juices, therefore, cheese with natural flavors (spices, herbs, dried herbs and vegetables), in addition to high digestibility, has medicinal and dietary properties.
Also, the known product does not consist a moisture content in the finished product of more than 3%, which also affects the quality of the product: at a higher moisture content (under-dried cheese), the crispy taste characteristic of this product disappears, a “powdery” taste appears, the cheese crumbles … Dry foamed cheeses with excessive moisture content soften during storage and take on a spreading shape.
Simplification of the production process of dry foamed cheese, ready-to-eat and with high consumer and organoleptic properties, is possible with the use of the Samun vacuum microwave unit.
The technical result consists in reducing the cost (by reducing energy consumption and labor intensity) of obtaining dry foamed cheese, improving the organoleptic characteristics of the product, increasing its shelf life.
Dry foamed cheese is a volumetric body in the form of balls, or cubes, or sticks with a smooth surface, porous inside, with a given taste and aroma. Each piece of the product is covered with a layer of humectant ingredient, on top of which is applied layer of an adhesive ingredient, on which a layer of a mixture of dry flavoring ingredients is located. The composition of the snacks has the following ratio of components, %
- Cheese – 98.0-99.0
- Flavoring agent – 0.1-0.5
- Dry flavoring mixture – the rest.
Physicochemical indicators of the obtained product:
– mass fraction of fat in dry matter 40-45%;
– mass fraction of moisture in the product, no more than 3%.
Wheat flour is used as a water-retaining ingredient. Through experimentation, it has been found that, in order to prevent caking, a good result is obtained by treating sliced cheese with wheat flour. It is known that the starch contained in wheat flour has a high ability to bind water. However, the treatment of cheese pieces with wheat flour as an anti-caking ingredient in the microwave drying process has not been identified from known sources. Processing with wheat flour reduces the energy intensity of the method for producing dry foamed cheese, simplifies it and makes it cheaper, which affects the cost of the product. Cheese processed with wheat flour has a lower initial moisture content, which eliminates the need for a stepwise increase in temperature and simplifies the drying process.
The adhesive ingredient is made on the basis of pectin and may have the following composition: pectin, citric acid, thickener.
Pectin is a refined carbohydrate product obtained by water extraction from edible plant material, usually citrus fruits or apples. Food pectin exhibits gelling properties. In the panning drum, the bodies of the semi-finished product are mixed and enveloped with a liquid pectin-based adhesive ingredient, on which particles of the flavoring mixture are fixed. Pectin reacts with casein, prevents casein from coagulating at pH below the isoelectric point, and increases the stability of the protein during heat treatment. This allows it to be used not only to create an edible membrane on the surface of the product bodies, but also to extend the shelf life of the product. In addition, pectin substances have antibacterial properties, lower blood sugar levels, and improve the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract.
The liquid adhesive ingredient allows you to apply and hold on the surface a dry flavoring mixture, which improves the taste and other organoleptic properties of the product. A dry mixture of flavoring ingredients applied to the surface of the product, which contains the following components at a ratio, %:
- spices – 0.5-2.5,
- herbal spices – 50.0-70.0
- dried vegetables – 45.5-27
The high content of aromatic substances promotes the separation of digestive juices, therefore, cheese with natural flavors (spices, herbs, dried herbs and vegetables), in addition to being highly digestible, has medicinal and dietary properties.
Dry foamed cheese contains no more than 3% moisture, which increases the organoleptic properties of the resulting product and increases its shelf life up to 180 days.
The preparation of the inventive dry foamed cheese is carried out as follows. All spices are pretreated. The peppers are blown with hot air on a vibrating sieve and ground into a fine powder in a mill. Initial raw materials (hard, pickled, cheeses) normalized by the fat-protein ratio with a fat mass fraction of not more than 45% is formed into pieces 10-15 mm in size in a scraper, which are then processed with wheat flour to remove excess moisture and, accordingly, stickiness, which prevents clumping and caking during subsequent drying and allows you to obtain uniformly shaped pieces of foam cheese.
Dusting with flour is carried out on cutting tables. The resulting semi-finished product is fed a strictly defined amount (for example, 40 kg) into a microwave drying vacuum chamber. Drying is carried out with microwave energy at a temperature of 37-40 ° C and a pressure of 70-80 mm Hg. with mechanical tedding of the product. The production of foamed cheese is a complex process, and the result depends on the composition of the original cheese (eg moisture content, fat content, etc.). The applicant has obtained good results using hard rennet cheeses with a fat content of up to 40-45% as a starting material. In cheeses with a higher fat content, at the specified temperature regime, fat melts out, which acts as a lubricant between hard cheese particles, fat dispersion and the formation of a fat emulsion, which does not allow obtaining a good porous, crunchy product. The product obtained from low-fat cheeses does not have sufficient taste properties (“empty” taste). Cheese processed with wheat flour has a lower initial moisture content, which eliminates the need for a stepwise increase in temperature and simplifies the drying process. The temperature in the drying chamber is maintained at 37-40 ° C and a pressure of 70-80 mm Hg. The drying time in frames 40-60 minutes.
The drying range was chosen as optimal at the specified temperature, protein destruction (melting and sintering of cheese into a lump) does not occur, which will preserve the biological value of the product and organoleptic properties. The offered temperature range for drying under vacuum makes it possible to obtain dry foamed cheese of any shape (balls, sticks, straws, cubes, etc.). Depending on the type of cheese and its quantity, it is possible to select the temperature and pressure mode within the stated range. During microwave drying, the cheese swells due to an instantaneous pressure drop and physicochemical changes occurring in the raw material, as a result, the semi-finished product acquires a delicate porous structure, a characteristic crunchy taste, the color from white to light yellow.
After drying, the product is sent to a periodically operating mixing device (coater), for which pneumatic transport is used. In the panning drum, the pieces of the semi-finished product are mixed and enveloped with a liquid pectin-based adhesive ingredient. Then, product fed into the drum and adhered to a layer of liquid adhesive on the surface of the product bodies. The resulting product is sent to a vacuum apparatus for fixing the applied coating from the flavoring mixture and drying the liquid adhesive layer, as well as for drying to a predetermined percentage of moisture equal to 3%. Drying is carried out for 7-12 minutes at a temperature of 37-38 ° C.
At the end of the drying process, the product is removed from the vacuum chamber and placed on mesh trays, where it is stabilized for 25-35 minutes at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. During this time, the product cools down and takes on its final shape.
The finished product is sent to a filling machine, where it is packaged in a sealed container, and then packed in boxes.
Examples of specific implementation.
Clean 100 kg of Kostroma cheese (hard rennet in accordance with GOST 7616-84, optimum moisture content 39-41%) from packaging, cut into cubes with a linear side of 15 mm, dried in microwave vacuum apparatus of the “Monsoon” type at 37 ° C and pressure in a vacuum chamber 70 mm Hg within 45 minutes. After that, the product is sent to a panning apparatus, where it is mixed with a liquid adhesive ingredient based on pectin, then the crushed flavoring mixture is served there, the product is mixed with dry flavoring ingredients: 1.0 kg of a mixture of spices (salt, sugar, pepper, paprika, garlic, etc. etc). The resulting semi-finished product is sent to a vacuum apparatus for subsequent drying to a predetermined percentage of moisture content equal to 3%. Then the product is stabilized to the ambient conditions of the production workshop at a temperature of 20 ° C for 35 minutes. The finished product is packed in a sealed container of 25 g.
The resulting product is balls with a diameter of 20-25 mm, from white to light yellow, with a smooth surface, with numerous pores inside, with a pronounced taste and aroma of the original cheese and a spice flavor.
100 kg of Chechil cheese is cut into sticks up to 30 mm long, subjected to microwave vacuum drying for 45 minutes at a temperature of 38 ° C and a pressure of 80 mm Hg. After that, the product is sent to a panning machine, where it is mixed with a liquid adhesive ingredient based on pectin, then the crushed flavoring mixture is fed there, the product is mixed with dry flavoring ingredients: 0.7 kg of a mixture of spices (salt, sugar, pepper, paprika, garlic, etc. etc). The resulting semi-finished product is sent to a vacuum apparatus for subsequent drying to a predetermined percentage of moisture content equal to 3%. Then the finished product is stabilized in temperature to the ambient conditions of the production workshop at a temperature of 25 ° C for 40 minutes. The finished product is packed in a sealed container of 50 g.
The resulting cheese is white, shape – sticks up to 30 mm long with a smooth surface and numerous internal pores. With the taste and aroma of the original cheese and the aftertaste of spices.
The given examples of the utility model do not deplete all possible options; various modifications are possible without departing from the essence of the technical solution.
Dry foam chease. Charecteristics o signs
|Mass fraction of, %||fat in dry matter, mass%, not less||40 – 45|
|moisture,%, no more||0,3|
|table salt,%, no more||7|
|Solids yield||40 – 43|
|Energy value per 100 g, kcal||420|
|Content, wt %:||proteins||45|
|Composition, wt %||Cheese||98,0 – 99,0|
|Flavor||0,1 – 0,5|
|Dry flavoring mixture||rest|
|Taste and smell||Clean, moderately pronounced, cheesy with the flavor and aroma of used additives, slightly salty, for flavored – corresponding to the flavor|
|Colour||Uniform color white, cream, yellow, light brown – depending on the raw materials used. When using fillers, the color is determined by the color of the filler applied. Pieces or dotted filler inclusions are allowed|
|Shelf life without loss of basic consumer qualities, days||180|
Cheese balls are made from natural hard cheese using a new unique technology. The cheese is foamed in a gentle way and acquires an original taste. Crispy cheese is both nutritious food and a delicious treat. Sour cream and onion flavored cheese balls are a great snack on their own, but also go well with wine or beer. Natural cheese is a source of protein, vitamins A and B. 70 grams of cheese contains the daily amount of calcium for an adult. Cheese is easily absorbed by the body. Enjoy crispy cheese without worrying about your health.